Articles

Cranial Segment Chart

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CRANIAL

SEGMENT

6th
gill arch

differentiation of head & neck in coming
onto land

5th
gill arch (vesti-gial in human emb-ryos)

4th
gill arch

3rd
gill arch

2nd
(hyoid) gill arch, evolution of hind brain & sense of balance

1st
(mandi-bular) gill arch & evolution of sense of water current

evolution of midbrain & sense of sight

evolution of forebrain & sense of smell

ROLE IN

EVO-LUTION

cartilage of the larynx

lower hyoid

stapes

styloid process

upper hyoid

malleus

incus

(mandi-ble)

ITS

BONE

muscle
of the inner throat, tongue
(sterno-cleido-mastoid
& trape-zius)

smooth muscle of air pass-ages, lungs, heart,
diges-tive tract

stylo-pharyn-geus

facial muscles

stylohy-oid

post. di-gastric

chewing muscles

tensor timpani

mylohy-oid, ant. digastric

most eye muscles

ITS

MUSCLE

med-ulla

(cervi-cal
seg-ments 1-5)

med-ulla

med-ulla

med-ulla

pons

cere-bellum

parietal lobes

medulla

cerebral peduncle

pons

thalamus

occipital lobes cerebral peduncle

frontal lobes

temporal lobes

limbic system?

BRAIN

AREA

XI. Accessory

XII. Hypo-glossal

“ “

X. Vagus

IX.
Glossophar-yngeal

VI. Abdu-cens

VII. Facial

VIII.
Vestibu-lococh-lear

IV. Trochlear

V. Trigem-inal

(Lateral Lines)

II. Optic

III. Oculo-motor

0. Terminal

I. Olfactory

CRANIAL

NERVE

XI. movement of inner throat

XII.

mani-pula-ting food, speak-ing

X. swall-owing, voice, breath-ing,

circu-lation, diges-tion

IX. taste, saliva-tion

VI. lateral rectus eye muscle

VII.facial move-ment, secretion

of saliva & tears, taste

VIII. balance, hearing

IV. superior oblique eye muscle

V. bite, chew, sensation from face eyes, nose &
mouth

(detecting water currents)

II. sight

III. eye move-ment

I. smell

FUNC-TION OF CRANIAL NERVE

take in

aaaahhhhh………”

(start
aiming for the next meal)

swal-low, pre-pare to take in

mmmmmm……….”

desire

I want more”

orient, enjoy

smiling at what I taste, I listen beyond
sound”

self-protect

bite

I can bite anything that touches my face”

focus

under-stand

I can under-stand what I see”

be social

distin-guish, categorize

I can decide by smell”

ABILITY OF SEGMENT

concen-tric

tail-ward

eccen-tric

vertical plane

horizontal plane

sagittal plane

headward

SPATIAL DIREC-TION

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CRANIAL

SEGMENT

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